1. Computer information systems
Information system is a system intended for collecting, storing, processing and delivery of information.
In 1970s ANSI/X3/SPARC committee offered a 3-level data organization architecture for providing efficient data organization and data processing. The offered architecture became the basis for creating DBMS, as well as for creating Information Systems in whole.
In ANSI-SPARC data organization architecture it is presupposed that external (user's) level of data organization is implemented as well as the conceptual level and internal level within the bounds of logical data model. But it occurred that only object structural component is not enough in the external schema. So, nowadays a formalized data domain model which reflects object structural component and process component (data domain tasks) is implemented by an application which provides the problem orientation of Information System.
Creating application requires programming. This determines high labor-output ratio and high costs.
Another disadvantage of Information Systems is their passiveness which means that a system itself is not able to understand problems occurring while functioning, as well as it doesn't provide the users with high-level means for self-modification without programming).
Passiveness of Information Systems has a number of consequences::
1. Information system is to fulfill many tasks with high quality providing acceptable adequacy of Information System to external environment during a long period of time. But many of the necessary tasks either are unknown at the stage of designing of a system, or these tasks are not clearly described. This leads to a great inconvenience of a system (a system is to fulfill many tasks and provide many variants of fulfillment), and to the necessity of complex and laborious process of designing.
2. Implementation of necessary tasks in the system and possible variants of their fulfillment makes it possible to create rather rigid systems, i.e. information systems with rigid links and functional processes. This provides maximal effectiveness along with high structural and functional redundancy, but makes serious problems for modification of information system while functioning.
3. All information systems have a tendency to expansion (spread-out) and to worsening of indicators of functioning.
4. Creating Information Systems for changeable and fuzzy data domains demand high costs.
So, we suggest a transition from passive Information Systems to Self-organizing Information Systems (SIS) for increasing of efficiency and for larger adoption of information systems in different spheres of human activities, accompanied by improving of user friendly interaction. Self-organizing Information Systems are able to preserve and improve parameters of functioning by means of self-learning and self-organization on basis of internal activity of the system. This allows to SIS to reveal properties of intensive systems and to operate persistently in more aggressive and changeable environments, thus increasing manyfold the period of functioning.