Evolution is a process of system's temporal gradual
irreversible changes. Therefore, the evolution system
is the system which changes gradually (permanently) and irreversibly.
The process of evolution can be either progressive
(with rise in system's complexity and organization), or regressive
(with reduction of system's complexity and organization). During
evolution process important role belongs to both intrinsic factors
and the environment of the system.
In concordance with the general systems theory by Y.A.Urmantsev
only four basic non-evolutional transformations of a system (object-system)
exist within the bounds of a system of objects of one and the same
type (one type of systems which possess similar properties):
Identical - transformation into self;
Quantitative - transformation of "quantity"
of primary elements;
Qualitative - transformation of "quality"
of primary elements;
Relative - transformation of "relations"
of primary elements
and 11 derivative transformations which are the combinations of
the basic ones.
Evolutional transformations (which are given specific names) correspond
to the above-listed non-evolutional transformations as follow:
Identical - stasigenesis;
Quantitative - quantigenesis;
Qualitative - qualigenesis;
Relative - isogenesis.
To undergo evolution the system must be of enough complexity to
possess the potentiality of changing insignificantly, i.e. to hold
fixed almost all the most insignificant divergences in structure,
functions and behavior.
We are of the opinion that the most complete theory of
non-evolutional and evolutional systems' changes is developed by
Y. A. Urmantsev in his works "General Systems Theory" and Evolutionics.
Evolution allows to substantiate a great variety
of objects of the Universe and their changes during existence, but
it doesn't reveal the reasons of occurrence of fundamentally new
instances and new classes of objects. Another type of irreversible
processes (which are called revolution) allows to explain this phenomenon.
Revolution is an essential drastic qualitative
change or a leap in gradual system's change, conjugated with gap
between current and previous system's state (or gap between influence
and its result).
Revolutionary processes are transient, so they can change systems
considerably during rather a short period of time. It is precisely
this fact that explains the occurrence of new instances and even
new objects' classes.
However, revolution often causes disruption (decomposing) and elimination of systems. In this case the revolutionary process is defined as catastrophe.
The above mentioned definitions of irreversible systems' changes are phenomenological. They reflect the outer aspect of systems' changes only - systems' behavior perceived from without. Therefore this approach allows only to ascertain how irreversible systems' changes occur, but it does not allow to reveal the cause of irreversible changes and to understand the physics of inner processes.
Synergetics (the new science - a part of general
systems theory) allows to understand and explain the inner physics
of evolutional and revolutionary systems' changes.
Synergetics is a science about occurrence, maintaining of steadiness and disintegration of structures of different nature on basis of processes of self-organization in open non-linear environment.
The term "synergetics" was introduced by the founder of this science Hermann Haken in his work of the same name "Synergetics".
Synergetics revealed the systemic relation between macro-processes,
which embrace the whole system, and micro-processes, which flow
inside the system. This means that micro- and macro-processes, being
independent, influence considerably on each other. Synergetics showed
that in stable conditions of systems' existence macro-processes
prevail, stabilizing the systems' behavior and determining evolutional
changes. On then contrary, in the state of instability micro-processes
prevail, they undergo considerable changes due to insignificant
fluctuations, and this results in revolutionary change.
Thus, synergetics as a part of general systems theory allows to describe with an utmost precision the occurrence, existence and destruction of real systems of the Universe.